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Nutrition Composition


Plasma Antioxidant Capacity Changes

Journal of the American College of Nutrition 26, no.2 (2007):170-181. Prior, R. L., Gu, L., Wu, S., Jacob, R.A., Sotoudeh, G., Kader, A.A. and Cook, R.A

This study was undertaken to determine if the consumption of meals of blueberries, grapes, kiwifruit, strawberry, cherry and dried plums increased plasma antioxidant capacity (AOC) measured as Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORACfl); whether macronutrient composition of the meal alters postprandial changes in AOC; and whether preliminary recommendations can be developed for antioxidant intake. Results suggest that certain berries and fruits increased postprandial AOC. Plasma AOC did not change after a meal with dried plums or prune juice. The authors comment that chlorogenic acid or its isomers which predominate in dried plums may be poorly absorbed. Low absorption of these compounds or metabolism into compounds with lower AOC may account for the limited in vivo antioxidant response to these phytochemicals.

Carbohydrate Composition of Selected Plum/Prune Preparations

Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 52, no. 4 (2004): 853–859
Dikeman, C.L., Bauer, L.L., Fahey Jr., G.C.

Eighteen plum/prune preparations and byproducts were analyzed for proximate constituents and carbohydrate profiles.

Lipophilic and Hydrophilic Antioxidant Capacities of Common Foods in the United States

Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry  52, no. 12 (2004): 4026–4037
Wu, X., Beecher G.R., Holden, J.M., Haytowitz, D.B., Gebhardt, S.E. and Prior, R.L.

Lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidant capacities were determined by the ORACfl assay on more than 100 different kinds of foods. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was calculated by combining L-ORACfl and H-ORACfl. Total phenolics were also measured; 85 grams (½ cup) prunes has a TAC of 7,291/serving. (NOTE: This reference is used for the TAC value for dried plums, replacing the ORAC value as reported in the February 1999 issue of Agricultural Research, the USDA/ARS magazine).

Effect of Drying Conditions and Storage Period

Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 52, no. 15 (2004): 4780–4784
Del Caro, A., Piga, A., Pinna, I., Fenu, P.M. and Agabbio, M.

Two varieties of prunes were dried by high and low temperatures and chemical parameters were monitored during storage. Temperature significantly affected the polyphenol content with different effects according to the class of polyphenols. Storage decreases polyphenol content (apart from chlorogenic acid) although the antioxidant capacity increases probably due to the formation of Maillard reaction products.

Quantitative Evaluation of Antioxidant Components in Prunes (Prunus domestica L.)

Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 51, no. 5 (2003): 1480–1485
Kayano, S., Yamada, N.F., Suzuki, T., Ikami, T., Shioaki, K., Kikuzaki, H., Mitani, T. and Nakatani, N.

The study determined the contribution of caffeoylquinic acid isomers to the ORAC of prunes and investigated the existence of other antioxidant components.

Antioxidant Activity of Prune (Prunus domestica L.) Constituents and a New Synergist

Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 50, no. 13 (2002): 3708–3712
Kayano, S., Kikuzaki, H., Fukutsuka, N., Mitani, T. and Nakatani, N.

Antioxidants from prunes were isolated, identified and antioxidant activity assessed by the ORAC assay. The synergistic effect of a new chromanone on caffeoylquinic acid isomers is described.

LC/ES-MS Detection of Hydroxycinnamates in Human Plasma and Urine

Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 49, no. 4 (2001): 1747–1750
Cremin, P., Kasim-Karakas, S. and Waterhouse, A.L.

Hydroxycinnamates are present in high concentration in prunes. Little is known about the absorption and metabolism of these compounds and their metabolites after consumption of normal foods. This study developed a sensitive method using HPLC with electrospray mass spectrometric detection to measure caffeic, ferulic and chlorogenic acids in human plasma and urine. The method was tested on samples from volunteers consuming a single dose of 100 grams of prunes, and increased levels were observed, demonstrating that the method is capable of detecting changes in hydroxycinnamate levels from dietary intake.

Chemical Composition and Potential Health Effects of Prunes: A functional food?

Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 41, no. 4 (2001): 251–286 S

Stacewicz-Sapuntzakis, M., Bowen, P.E., Hussain, E.R., Damayanti-Wood, B.J. and Farnsworth, N.R.

This systemic literature review summarizes the chemical composition of prunes and their biological effects on human health.

Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Prunes and Prune Juice (Prunus domestica)

Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 46, no. 4 (1998): 1247–1252
Donovan, J.L., Meyer, A.S.  and Waterhouse, A.L.

Commercial prune and prune juice extracts were analyzed for phenolics by reverse phase HPCL with diode array detection and tested for ability to inhibit oxidation of human LDL. Hydroxycinnamates, especially neochlorogenic and chlorogenic acids predominated. These compounds as well as the prune and prune juice extracts inhibited the oxidation of LDL.

Contribution of Individual Polyphenolics to Total Antiosidant Capacity of Plums

The effect of polyphenolics on antioxidant capacities of plums, the amounts of total phenolics, total flavonoids and individual phenolic compounds, and vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity (VCEAC) of 11 plum cultivars was determined.

Chun, O. K., D. O. Kim, et al. (2003). “Contribution of individual polyphenolics to total antioxidant capacity of plums.” J Agric Food Chem 51(25): 7240-5.

Quantification of Polyphenolics and Their Antioxidant Capacity in Plums

Total phenolics, total flavonoids, and antioxidant capacity of 11 cultivars of fresh plums were determined using spectrophotometric methods.

Kim, D. O., O. K. Chun, et al. (2003). “Quantification of polyphenolics and their antioxidant capacity in fresh plums.” J Agric Food Chem 51(22): 6509-15.

Electrospray Ionization Characterization of Phenolic Constituents in Dried Plums

Four different conditions were used to analyze the phytochemicals in commercial dried plums. Major components were neochlorogenic acid and cryptochloroenic acid. Forty minor components were also characterized. The diagnostic fragmentation patterns of different phenolics are presented on the basis of electrospray ionization (ESI) MS/MS data of components in dried plums and 14 authentic standards.

Fang, N, S Yu and R.L. Prior (2002). “LC/MS/MS characterization of phenolic constituents in dried plums.” J Agric Food Chem 50: 3579-3585.

Dried Plums and Their Products: Composition and Health Effects - An Updated Review

Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 2013.53:1277-1302.

Stacewicz-Sapuntzakis M.

 This paper updates the 2001 review conducted by the same author and published in the same journal and describes the composition of the dried plums, prune juice and dried plum powder with attention to possibly bioactive compounds. There are several composition tables on nutrients, carbohydraytes , carotenoids and antioxidant capacity as measured by various assays. The paper discusses potential health effects of various dried plum components and can serve as a resource for those seeking a summary of the exisiting research on dried plums.